合成生物学

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DNA信息存储:生命系统与信息系统的桥梁

韩明哲1,2, 陈为刚1,3, 宋理富1,2, 李炳志1,2, 元英进1,2   

  1. 1.天津大学,合成生物学前沿科学中心,系统生物工程教育部重点实验室,天津 300072
    2.天津大学,化工学院,天津 300072
    3.天津大学,微电子学院,天津 300072
  • 通讯作者: 元英进
  • 作者简介:韩明哲(1996-),男,博士研究生,研究方向为合成生物学及DNA信息存储。E-mail:mickeyhan@tju.edu.cn|元英进(1963-),男,教授,博士生导师,研究方向为合成生物学及人工基因组化学合成。E-mail:yjyuan@tju.edu.cn

DNA information storage: bridging biological and digital world

Mingzhe HAN1,2, Weigang CHEN1,3, Lifu SONG1,2, Bingzhi LI1,2, Yingjin YUAN1,2   

  1. 1.Frontier Science Center for Synthetic Biology and Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering (Ministry of Education),Tianjin University,Tianjin 300072,PR China
    2.SynBio Research Platform,Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin),School of Chemical Engineering and Technology,Tianjin University,Tianjin 300072,PR China
    3.School of Microelectronics,Tianjin University,Tianjin 300072,PR China
  • Contact: Yingjin YUAN

摘要:

DNA信息存储通过编解码、合成、编辑和测序等过程,实现数字信息写入、存储与读出。其在密度、寿命、能耗和抗电磁干扰等方面较磁、光、电等常规的信息存储介质有较大优势。随着全球数据总量的快速增长,DNA信息存储的优势特性和发展潜力受到了研究者的广泛关注。本文阐述DNA信息存储的基本原理和技术流程,分析DNA信息存储与生命系统和信息系统的关联,并依据读写技术特点归纳近年来涌现的“DNA硬盘”、“DNA光盘”和“DNA磁带”等几种主要模式、发展现状及技术路线。在此基础上,探讨DNA信息存储商业化、大规模应用面临的主要挑战,讨论更低成本的数据写入和更快速的数据读出,并指出可行的发展路线。最后,展望DNA作为新型存储介质在现代存储系统中的发展演化趋势。

关键词: 合成生物学, 数字信息存储, DNA合成, DNA测序, 信息编码

Abstract:

The external preservation of information enables reliable inheritance of human thoughts, playing important roles in the progress of human civilization. Starting from tying knots in ropes to storing data in magnetic and optical media, these technologies have documented and will continue to record the splendid civilization. However, driven by the global digitalization, the global data volume is growing rapidly and challenging the storage capability of existing storage technologies. DNA, as the natural carrier of genetic information, is believed to be a potential candidate to deal with the data storage challenge due to the revealed high density, long-term duration and low maintaining cost features. In this review, we first describe the fundamental principles and technical processes of DNA information storage. The pivotal position of DNA information storage bridging the biological and digital world is also pointed out. Then, according to the different characteristics of data writing and reading, we categorize these technologies into three storage modes, termed as "DNA hard drive", "DNA compact disc" and "DNA tape", by analogy with the popular storage media correspondingly. "DNA hard drive" mode shows the potential in the volume enlargement of the existing information storage system using oligonucleotide pools. "DNA compact disc" mode provides direct in vivo processing on DNA data storage enabling massive data distribution at low cost. "DNA tape" mode provides intracellular information recoding solutions, which may promote the future developments of cellular computing and communication. The up-to-date progress of the three modes is also summarized. Next, we discuss the main obstacles and potential technical routes towards practical applications of DNA information storage. We envision cheaper, faster DNA information storage technology, and its appropriate integration with information storage systems in the future. Finally, we conclude that DNA information storage is cutting-edge interdisciplinary technology and hope this review can bring more focus and research efforts from various fields to DNA information storage.

Key words: Synthetic biology, Digital information storage, DNA synthesis, DNA sequencing, Information encoding

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